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Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

Ecology theory past paper questions

Explain the term ecology

Study of the various interactions between organisms and their environment 

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Explain the term Habitat

Where an organism lives 

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Explain the term scramble competition

A struggle for a scarce resource in limited supply and all get some

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Explain the term ecology

Study of the various interactions between organisms and their environment 

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Give one example of an abiotic factor and one example of a biotic factor that apply specifically to an aquatic environment

Abiotic:

  • Temperature

  • Light intensity

  • Water current

  • Salinity

  • Dissolved oxygen

Biotic:

  • Plants for food

  • Predators

  • Prey

  • Parasites

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To what part of the ecosystem do edaphic factors apply ?

Soil

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Why is it necessary for an organism to possess an adaptation to its habitat ?

To increase chance of survival of species

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Name two types of adaptation that an organism can exhibit

  • Structural

  • Competitive

  • Behavioural

 

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Explain the relationship between the following pairs of terms

  • Ecosystem and niche

  • Ecosystem and community

  • Trophic level and food chains

  • Niche is the functional role of an organism in an ecosystem

  • A community is all organisms found in an ecosystem

  • The trophic level is the position of an organism in a food chain

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Explain what is meant by a pyramid of numbers. Describe briefly how to construct one

A diagram that shows the number of organisms at each trophic level.

How to construct:

  • Count all producers and place at bottom of pyramid

  • Count all primary consumers and place above producers 

  • Count all secondary consumers and place above primary consumers

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Draw an example of an inverted pyramid of numbers

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Study the diagram below of the food web and answer the following questions

  1. What is a food web ?

  2. Identify two primary consumers from the food web shown, and indicate why these organisms are classified as primary consumers

  3. Using the food web above, write out three separate food chains in which the hawk occupies a different trophic level each time

  4. Population size is controlled by a number of factors, including competition. Explain the underlined term and illustrate your answer with an example from the food web

  5. Apart from competition, name one abiotic factor that could influence population

 

  1. Food  web: Two or more interconnected food chains

  2. Primary consumers: Grasshopper/ caterpillar/rabbit/deerWhy classified this way: Feed on producers

  3. Three food chains: 

  4. Competition: The struggle for a resource which is limited Example: Rabbit and grasshopper compete for food

  5. Abiotic factor that could influence population size:

  • Light intensity 

  • Soil Ph

  • Salinity of water

  • Water current

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Draw a pyramid of numbers to represent the information in the food chain below.

Rose bush → caterpillars → blackbirds → hawk

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Explain why pyramids of numbers are usually restricted to three or four levels

Due to large energy loss at each level

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Explain the term community

All the organisms in an area 

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What term is used to describe the organisms at the top of the food chains?

Top consumer

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Explain the term population

All the organisms of a particular species living in an area

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Explain the term biotic factor

Living factor

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Explain the term population

All the organisms of a particular species living in an area

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Explain the difference between structural and behavioural adaptations

Structural: Change in physical structure

Behavoural: Change in the way it acts

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Give two examples of structural adaptations from the animal kingdom. In your answer indicate how each adaptation is of benefit to the animal

  • Earthworm: Muccus prevents drying

  • Badger: sharp claws for digging

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Give one reason an organism may need to undergo adaptions within its environment

  • New predator appears

  • Change in  source of food

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