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  1. Ecology theory
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Unit 1
    Nutrient recycling
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Ecological relationships and population dynamics
    2 Topics
  4. Human impact on the ecosystem
    2 Topics
  5. Study of a grassland ecosystem
    3 Topics
  6. Responses in the Flowering Plant
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  7. Unit 3
    Sexual reproduction in the flowering plant
    1 Topic
  8. The human reproductive system
    3 Topics
  9. The menstrual cycle
    2 Topics
  10. Pregnancy
    2 Topics
  11. The circulatory system
    4 Topics
  12. Blood
    5 Topics
  13. The heart
    5 Topics
Lesson 1, Topic 3
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Types of organisms in food chains

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Types of organisms in an ecosystem

Producers:

Autotrophs : organisms that make their own food

Consumers:

Heterotrophs : organisms that can not make their own food

Primary consumers:

Herbivores : organisms that only eat plants

Secondary consumers:

Carnivores: animals that eat animals

Secondary consumers:

Omnivores : animals that eat plants and animals

Adaptations of organisms to their habitat

  • It is important that organisms are adapted to their habitat so that they can survive

There are three types of adaptation an organism can have:

Structural

A feature of an organism’s body that helps it to survive/reproduce

  • Penguins have a short stiff tail. They can lean backwards and balance on their heels and their tail. This reduces heat loss from their feet to the ground.
  • The colour of a penguin’s body helps to camouflage it when it is swimming. From above, its dark back blends in against the sea and from below, its light front blends in against the sky.

Physiological:

A body process that helps an organism to survive/reproduce

  • Males can go without food for around 100 days. This allows them to survive during winter when no food is available.
  • A penguin’s resting heart rate can slow down greatly during a dive so that it can conserve oxygen underwater and spend more time finding food.

Behavioral 

Responses made by an organism that help it to survive/reproduce

  • Adult male penguins huddle together during winter. This helps them to avoid heat loss and survive until spring.
  • They breed during the winter so that their offspring reach independence in summer when more food is available.

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