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The fundamentals

Learning objectives :

  • Understand that atoms are mostly empty space surrounding a very small, dense nucleus that contains
    protons and neutrons; electrons are found in shells in the empty space around the nucleus
  • Identify and describe protons, neutrons and electrons in terms of their relative charges and relative masses
  • Understand the terms atomic and proton number; mass and nucleon number
  • Describe the distribution of mass and charge within an atom
  • Describe the behaviour of beams of protons, neutrons and electrons moving at the same velocity in an
    electric field
  • Determine the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons present in both atoms and ions given atomic or
    proton number, mass or nucleon number and charge
  • State and explain qualitatively the variations in atomic radius and ionic radius across a period and down a
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